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GTWT Facilities

GARFIELD THOMAS WATER TUNNEL (GTWT)
48-INCH-Diameter WATER TUNNEL

Description

Closed-circuit, closed-jet tunnel

Drive System

Four-bladed, adjustable-pitch impeller

  Motor Power

1,491 kW variable speed (2,000 hp)

Working Section Size

1.2-meter diameter x 4.3-meter long (48 inches x 168 inches)

Velocity Range

1 m/s to 17 m/s (3 fps to 55 fps)

Max / Min Absolute Pressure

20.7 kPa to 413.7 kPa (3 psia to 60 psia)

Range of Cavitation Number

0.1 to >350

Instrumentation

Propeller dynamometers; pressure probes; laser-based diagnostics; pressure sensors; hydrophones; force balances; accelerometers; acoustic arrays

Torque and Thrust Dynamometers

Model internal mounts, 11.85 kW limit (150 hp)

Model Size Range

76.2 mm to 762 mm (3 inches to 30 inches)

Typical Tests Performed

Steady and unsteady forces and moments; optical flow field surveys; pressure distributions; cavitation performance; noise and vibration measurements; flow visualization; torque and thrust

Other Remarks

Turbulence level is 0.1 percent measured in the test section;
air content can be controlled as low as 1.0 molar ppm

Schematic of the 48-Inch-Diameter Water Tunnel

Tunel Scematics

Photograph of the  48-Inch-Diameter Water Tunnel

Tunnel Photo

Photograph of the Test Section of the 48-Inch-Diameter Water Tunnel, with the Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) System

Tunnel Indow

Partial Model of a Helicopter within the Test Section of the 48-Inch-Diameter Water Tunnel

Tunnel Interior

Published Descriptions

Lehman, A. L., "The Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel," Applied Research Laboratory at The Pennsylvania State University (ARL Penn State), Report No. NORD 16597-56, September 30, 1959.
Lauchle, G. C., Billet, M. L., and Deutsch, S., "High-Reynolds Number Liquid Flow Measurements," Frontiers in Experimental Fluid Mechanics, pages 95-157, edited by M. Gad-el-Hak, Springer-Verlag, 1989.
Marboe, R. C., Weyer, R. M., Jonson, M. L., and Thompson, D. E., "Hydroacoustic Research Capabilities in the Large Water Tunnel at ARL Penn State," Proceedings of Symposium on Flow Noise Modeling, Measurement, and Control, NCA-VOL 15/FED-VOL 168, pp. 125-135, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, November 28 – December 3, 1993.


12-INCH-Diameter WATER TUNNEL

Description

Closed-circuit, closed-jet tunnel

Drive System

Mixed-flow Peerless pump

Motor Power

140 kW variable speed (187 hp)

Working Section Size

Circular test section: 305-mm diameter x 762-mm length
(12 inches x 30 inches)
rectangular test section: 508 mm x 114 mm x 762 mm
(20 inches x 4.5 inches x 30 inches)

Velocity Range

2 m/s to 21 m/s (6 fps to 69 fps)

Max / Min Absolute Pressure

20.7 kPa to 413.7 kPa (3 psia to 60 psia)

Range of Cavitation Number

0.08  to  >350

Instrumentation

Pressure probes; optical flow measurement; pressure sensors; hydrophones; miniature force balances; accelerometers; acoustic arrays

Model Size Range

101 mm  max (4 inches)

Tests Performed

Steady-state and time-dependent force and pressure measurements on unpowered models; noise measurements on cavitating bodies; three-dimensional flow problems within the  circular test section; two-dimensional flow problems within the  rectangular test section

Other Remarks

Turbulence level is 0.1 percent measured in the test section;
air content can be controlled as low as 1.0 molar ppm

Schematic of the 12-Inch-Diamter Water Tunnel—with Either the Circular Test Section or the Rectangular Test Section

Tunnel Drawing

Photograph of the 12-Inch-Diameter Water Tunnel with the Circular Test Section Installed

Tunnel Overhead

Photograph of the 12-Inch-Diameter Water Tunnel Circular Test Section

Tunnel Window

Photograph of the 12-Inch-Diameter Water Tunnel with the Rectangular Test Section Installed in Vertical Configuration

CIMG0290

Published Descriptions

Lehman, A. L., "The Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel," Applied Research Laboratory at The Pennsylvania State University (ARL Penn State), Report No. NORD 16597-56, September 30, 1959.

Lauchle, G. C., Billet, M. L., and Deutsch, S., "High-Reynolds Number Liquid Flow Measurements," Frontiers in Experimental Fluid Mechanics, pages 95-157, edited by M. Gad-el-Hak, Springer-Verlag, 1989.


1.5-INCH-Diameter ULTRA-HIGH-SPEED WATER TUNNEL

Description

Closed-circuit, closed-jet tunnel

Drive System

Centrifugal pump; variable-speed inverter drive

Motor Power

55.9 kW variable speed (75 hp)

Working Section Size

38.1-mm diameter x 100-mm length (1.5 inches x 4 inches)

Velocity Range

5 m/s to 83.8 m/s (15 fps to 275 fps)

Max / Min Absolute Pressure

82.8 kPa to 413.7 kPa (12 psia to 60 psia)

Range of Cavitation Number

0.01 to >100

Instrumentation

Acoustic sensors; optical flow measurement

Model Size Range

12.7 mm  max (0.5 inches)

Tests Performed

Accelerated lifecycle cavitation damage

Additional Capabilities

Working fluids: water, alcohol, Freon 113

Photograph of the 1.5‑Inch-Diameter Ultra-High-Speed Water Tunnel

 

Schematic of the 1.5‑Inch-Diameter Ultra-High-Speed Water Tunnel Test Section with Cavitation Erosion Sample Holder

UHS DrawingUHS Tunnel

Material Evaluation Sample, Showing Cavitation Erosion after 5.0 Hours and 8.3 Hours

Evaluation Sample

Published Description

Weir, D. S., Billet, M. L., and Holl, J. W, "The 1.5 Inch Ultra-High-Speed Cavitation Tunnel at the Applied Research Laboratory of The Pennsylvania State University," ARL Penn State Technical Memorandum, TM 75-188, July 10, 1975.


QUIET PUMP LOOP

Description

Closed-circuit, re-configurable pump test loop

Drive System

111.9 kW (150 hp) primary drive; 93.2 kW (125 hp) auxiliary pump; variable-speed drive

Working Size

Up to 356 mm (14 inches) inlet/outlet

Flow Range

Up to 28,000 liters per min. (7,000 gpm)

Max / Min Absolute Pressure

65 kPa to 413.7 kPa (9.5 psia to 60 psia)

Range of Cavitation Number

0.01 to >100

Instrumentation

Pressure probes; optical flow measurement; pressure sensors; hydrophones; accelerometers; shaft torque and thrust; acoustic arrays

Model Size Range

350 mm (14 inches) inlet/outlet pipe diameter

Tests Performed

Centrifugal pump powering and acoustic performance testing; optical-based, detailed flow field measurements of pump inlet and outlet characteristics

Schematic of the Flexible and Highly-Reconfigurable Pump Test Loop

Pump Loop Drawing

Inlet Test Section of the Pump Test Loop

Pump Loop Window

Image of a Typical Centrifugal Pump Used in the Test Loop – Using Computer-Aided Design (CAD)

Centrifigal Pump

Published Descriptions

Hambric, S. A., Yocum, A. M., Cawley, T., and Willits, S. M., "ARL/Penn State Pump Test Loop," Applied Research Laboratory of The Pennsylvania State University (ARL Penn State), Technical Memorandum, TM 01-078, June 22, 2001.

Hambric, S. A., Yocum, A. M., Cawley, T., and Willits, S. M., "ARL/Penn State Pump Test Loop," Proceedings of 2001 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2001/NCA-23504, New York, November 11-16, 2001.


6-INCH-DIAMETER WATER TUNNEL

Description

Closed-circuit, closed-jet tunnel

Drive System

Peerless split-suction centrifugal pump; variable-speed inverter drive

Motor Power

59.6 kW variable speed (80 hp)

Working Section Size

152.4-mm diameter x 635-mm length (6 inches x 24 inches)

Velocity Range

< 1 m/s to 24 m/s (1 fps to 80 fps)

Max / Min Absolute Pressure

82.8 kPa to 413.7 kPa (12 psia to 60 psia)

Range of Cavitation Number

0.25 to >350

Instrumentation

Pressure probes; optical flow measurement; pressure sensors; hydrophones; miniature force balances; accelerometers; acoustic arrays

Model Size Range

50.8 mm  max (2 inches)

Tests Performed

Steady-state and time-dependent force and pressure measurements on unpowered models; noise measurements; probe calibrations

Test Section of the 6-Inch-Diameter Water Tunnel

6 inch Tunnel Window

Published Description

Kaku, K. "The Design of a Small Water Tunnel and Its Use in Evaluating Surface Roughness Effects on Cavitation," M.S. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, September 1962.


BOUNDARY-LAYER RESEARCH  TUNNEL (GLYCERIN TUNNEL)

Description

Closed-circuit, closed-jet tunnel

Drive System

Gould centrifugal pump

Motor Power

74.6 kW constant speed (100 hp)

Working Section Size

285-mm diameter  (11.2 inches)

Working Fluid

Glycerin

Maximum Velocity

<10  m/s (<32.8 fps)

Max / Min Absolute Pressure

Atmosphere

Reynolds No. Range

4,000 – 15,000

Instrumentation

Laser anemometry; pressure sensors; hydrophones; miniature force balances; accelerometers; acoustic arrays

Tests Performed

Near-wall turbulent flow measurements; large-scale turbulent structures within the viscous sublayer; basic turbulent shear layers; fluid/structural interactions; validation testing for computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

Other Remarks

ARL Penn State specifically designed this facility for research in the viscous sublayer over a wide ranges of Reynolds numbers.  The tunnel includes a 20-micrometer filter and a heat exchanger.  The internal surface of the metal test section is honed to 0.41 rms micrometer finish.  The tunnel also has a clear acrylic test section for laser anemometry.

Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) Measurements in the Acrylic Test Section of the Boundary Layer Research Facility

LDV Setup

Published Descriptions

Bakewell, H. P., Jr., "An Experimental Investigation of the Viscous Sublayer in a Turbulent Pipe Flow," Ph.D. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, 1966.

Chevrin, P. A. "The Structure of Reynolds Stress in the Near-Wall Region of a Turbulent Pipe Flow," Ph.D. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, 1988.


ACOUSTIC REVERBERANT TANK

Description

Anechoic and reverberant acoustic test tank

Dimensions

7.9 m x 5.3 m x 5.5 m deep (26 x 17 x 18 feet)

Characteristics

Structurally isolated for hydrodynamic acoustics testing, and lined with an absorber on four sides and on the bottom with three 0.5 meters x 0.5 meters (19.7 inches x 19.7 inches) underwater viewing ports

Max / Min Absolute Pressure

Ambient

Instrumentation

Mechanical oscillation of a small-scale test unit within the tank, providing a simulation of an oscillating flow pattern to simulate wave or tidal flow excitation; extensive use of non-intrusive instrumentation—including laser Doppler anemometry (LDV), particle-image velocimetry (PIV), and laser vibrometry; modal testing; material testing.

Model Size Range

Hardware up to 1.8 meters (6 feet)

Tests Performed

Structural dynamic testing where fluid loading characteristics are critical; vibratory characterization of metal and non-metal structures; damping and admittance properties of large-scale structures

Acoustic Reverberant Tank

MVC-013F

Laser-Vibrometry Measurements Being Performed through a  Underwater Window in the Acoustic Reverberant Tank

 

Acoustic Reverb Tank


FLOW-THROUGH ANECHOIC CHAMBER

Description

Anechoic chamber with flow-through wall and return ducting

Working Dimensions

9.3-meter height x 5.5 meter- width x 6.9-meter depth                                (30.5 feet x 18.0 feet x 22.5 feet)

Cut-Off Frequency

90 Hz (using fiberglass wedges)

Instrumentation

Various hydrophones; acoustic intensity probes

Tests Performed

Noise evaluations from transitional and turbulent boundary layers; quieting of automotive heating, venting, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems; quieting compressors; quieting of vacuum cleaners; quieting of interior noise from light armored vehicles; design and evaluation (D&E) of acoustic  hail and warning systems; D&E of carbon nanotubes; near-field acoustic holography near violins

Other Remarks

Chamber meets IEC 268 and ISO 3745 specifications from 90 Hz to 10 kHz; chamber designed with an opening for a test fan that extracts air from the chamber or a test jet to injects air into the chamber
Removable floor wedges

Schematic of the Flow-Through Anechoic Chamber

Anechoic Chamber Drawing

Photograph of the Flow-Through Anechoic Chamber

Anechoic Chamber Top View

Published Description

Prout, J. H. and Marboe, R. C., "ARL Penn State Flow-Through Anechoic Chamber," Applied Research Laboratory of The Pennsylvania State University, Technical Memorandum, TM 89‑065, February 22, 1990.


HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTER RESOURCES

High Performance Computing
Resources

5000+ total nodes (processors) available on the computing cluster for fluids and acoustic modeling programs

 

CIMG1074.JPG